Tsunami also called Seismic Sea Wave, or tidal wave, catastrophic ocean wave, usually cause by a submarine earthquake occurring less than 50 km beneath the seafloor, with a magnitude grater than 6.5 on the Richter scale. Under water or coastal landslides or volcanic eruptions also may cause a tsunami.


The surface orbital motion of any progressive oscillatory wave is transmitted diminishingly downward through the water, becoming insignificant at a depth below the surface equal to approximately half the wavelength. Tsunamis, however, being enormously longer than every the greatest ocean depths, experience significant retardation of orbital motion near the seafloor and behave as shallow-water waves regardless of the depth of the ocean the waves are propagated across. The velocity of shallow-water waves is controlled by this friction with the bottom, obeying formula (c=gd)


Tsunamis are reflected and refracted by near shore bottom topography and coastal configurations as any other water waves. Thus, their effects very widely from place to place. Occasionally, the first arrival of tsunami at a coast may be a trough, the water receding and exposing the shallow seafloor. Such an occurrence in Lisbon, pot., on Nov. 1,1755, attracted many curious people to the bay floor; and a large number of them were drowned by the succeeding wave crest that arrived only minutes later. Perhaps the most destructive tsunami was the one that occurred in 1703 at Awa, Japan, killing more than 100,000 people. The spectacular underwater volcanic explosions that obliterated Krakatau (Krakatoa) island on Aug. 26 and 27. 1883 created waves as high as 35 m in many east Indies localities, killing more than 36,000 people

Ms. Khizra Ahmed


My favourite writer


William Shakespeare was a great writer. He had wonderful ideas and language. He is very famous for writing plays. His plays are so interesting and realistic that one’s mind completely involves in it. One of his famous and highly successful plays are Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Julius Caesar, a midsummer night’s dream, a romantic comedy, merchant of Venice also a romantic comedy.

In his opinion this world is a stage and we are its actors and have our specific roles. We our bound to do our acts. This wonderful thing he has mentioned almost in his every play. As in his play “The merchant of Venice” one of his characters Antonio said “Well all play our part in this world, gratanio, and my part is a sad one”.

This shows that his plays are based on reality. I think this is the only reason that his plays are famous all over the world.

His dialogues really mean a lot. Either they are romantic one or sad he has always beautifully worded his ideas and dialogues. His characters have very high moral, strong ethical values and are modest and humble. The heroes of his plays are very sincere and loyal to beloveds. His way of writing and expressing a particular aspect shows that how confident and bold he was.

He not only used English in his plays but some words of other languages too. Like in “The merchant of Venice” signor Antonio where signor is an Italian world for sir. There were some scenes or situations in his plays where a friend becomes a betrayer like in “Julius Caesar”, “Macbeth” and “A midsummer night’s dream”.

His tragedies are the best but sometimes, while writing comedies he lost his balance for instance.

 Rida Sirajul Hai (X-M)



What should we do?


Once Hazrat Rabia Bassri was passing through a street, holding fire in one hand and some water in the other. Someone asked her, “Where and why you are going in this state?”

She said, “It’s my desire to set the fire on Allah’s heaven so that people worship him without any greed of heaven and this water I want to set the fire off of hell. So that people avoid sins without my fear”.

Well I think we should do good work without any greed and abstaining from every bad thing with any fear. This is the actual meaning of sincerity and devotion to anyone.


Anam Anjum



            Science and Human


Science and man’s helpmate. It has been a great blessing to man. It has conquered nature with the help of science, man controls the greatest force. In fact in every field of life science enables man to lead an easy comfortable life.


There are many benefits of science. It has helped the blind to see, the deaf to hear and the lame to walk. In the older age, ordinary fever took a huge toll of life. There were no preventive measures against small pox, plague and choleras but now better treatment methods have been invented by the scientists. Many and great researches have been made in the field of medicine. The discovery of vitamins has given greater health to man the X-rays have also done much good to man.


Science has made our traveling comfortable. We can travel in railways, ships, motel-cars and aero planes. The most distant places of the world have nearer to one another. The journey that once took months can now be covered in few hours.

A host of advantages have to man, as a result of the advances made by science and technology. It has given us comforts and luxuries. Fields of knowledge experience and reaction open in the past only to a few have been throw open to millions.


But the demerits of the scientific progress are no less significant. It has destroyed the established moral values of society. Man has become a slave of a machine.


Anum Nadeem


 Joan of Arc


St Joan of Arc was the peasant girl who Ted France defeat in the hundred years war and was burned at the stake for her beliefs was called JEANNE d’ Arc in France. She called her self Jeanni la Pucelle (Joan the maid)


She was brought up in the village of Domremy, near Nancy, northeastern France.


By the age of 13 Joan was having visions and believed that God has chosen her to help the French king Charles VII to beat the English.


Joan tried to see the king but was laughed at until she was finally admitted to the king’s court in 1429.


To test Joan, the king stood in disguise amongst his courtiers but Joan recognized him instantly and also told him what he asked for in his secret prayers.


Joan was given armour and an army to rescue the town of Orleans from the English and succeeded in just ten days.

Joan then led Charles through enemy territory to be crowned at Rheims Cathedral.


In May 1430, Joan was captured by the English and accused of witchcraft.


Joan insisted that her visions came from God, so a tribunal of French clergy condemned her as a heretic. She was burned at the stake in Roven on 30 May 1431.Shortly after her death the pope pronounced Joan innocent of all crimes. She was later made a Saint.

 Ms. Faryal Qureshi

Believe it or not

Most of us have had, one or two, dreadful experiences in our life, which haunt us till the last day. Last year, I had a dreadful experience, something so scary and I can’t help but think about it.

Venue D-block Class IXC we all students were sitting in our respective class and waiting for the new teacher to come and deliver us a lecture. What happened next is strange to believe……….that particular, let’s say MR. X came. He looked like a humble, generous man. We all were impressed when he started his lecture, but soon his hands started shaking; all of a sudden he looked weak. Unable to say mare words he to our stumbled and fell on the floor, a strange white thing started coming out of his mouth. We rushed out of the class. All the teachers and our principal gathered, they took him to the hospital. Sorry to say, he died at the spot.

Thought he was a stranger for us, we all couldn’t help but cry and pray for him.

Romaisa Ibrahim (X-C)




It would have been better if she were dead, Rebecca thought. The accident that had taken the life of her parents had also made her handicapped at the mercy of her aunt. She couldn’t climb, was not used to crutches and thus all her movements were restricted until her aunt helped her. But ‘sweet’ Aunt Randy was busier in her personal affairs. To Rebecca, her parent’s death, amputation of her legs and the true colours of Aunt Randy came as a great shock. She had never thought that a few hours of unfortunate happenings could change the entire state of her life.

Yesterday basketball champ was not even able to play her favourite game today. That was a pity because non she had nothing to distract her.

All she saw, these days, was the death of her parents. She dreamt about it, cried for it but could not do anything except being patient.

How her parents were laughing when their car hit the truck. Her mother’s eternal laugh was still ringing in her ears. They must have died quickly thought Rebecca. She wished they had taken her with them.

None of her friends have called her. She tried to convince herself that her aunt had driven them away but they knew other ways of contacting her. She was sure, though, that none of her friends could support her now. Their faces will only force Rebecca to remember the glorious past and then cry and scream at empty walls.

Rebecca wondered how she has survived, such depression. Any one could succumb under it. Well, she is a brave girl her father says so, she told herself and just then a tiny but obvious voice made a correction in her last thought. “Her father used to say so”. It was so hard for her to believe that her beloved parents were dead.

She felt dishearted, discouraged, distorted at heart and mind and trapped. Yeh, ‘trapped’ it was the exact word to describe Rebecca’s state. She felt her soul trapped in her incomplete body.

She wanted to be free and the thought of committing suicide struck her. But this thought went as quickly as it had come.

She was brave, she would not let reality overcome her enthusiasm, her spirit, she would progress….

But how? She tried to find the answer but in vain. But she was sure that if she tries hard enough, she will defeat her dismal destiny. Now she felt a bit better, a bit spiritually raised but the poignant thoughts never stopped coming into her mind.

She sat on her wheelchair, thinking and staring at the sky, asking God why He has chosen such fate for her. But she had to decide now and she decided to cope with her dreadful fate. She would cope with it and prove that she is her father’s daughter.

She knew now that no matter how trapped she felt, time will pass and her life will find a way.

The thought of others who survive after facing more hardships than Rebecca would be her survival Kit until her life opted for a change.


Anum Kabir